The CAS protocol is a simple and powerful ticket-based protocol developed exclusively for CAS. A complete protocol specification may be found at http://www.jasig.org/cas/protocol.
It involves one or many clients and one server.
Clients are embedded in cassified applications (called “CAS services”) whereas the CAS server is a standalone component: - the CAS server is responsible for authenticating users and granting accesses to applications - the CAS clients protect the CAS applications and retrieve the identity of the granted users from the CAS server.
The key concepts are: - the TGT (Ticket Granting Ticket), stored in the CASTGC cookie, represents a SSO session for a user - the ST (Service Ticket), transmitted as a GET parameter in urls, stands for the access granted by the CAS server to the cassified application for a specific user.
The current CAS protocol is the version 3.0, implemented by the CAS server 4.0.
It’s mainly a capture of the most common enhancements built on top of the CAS protocol revision 2.0.
Among all features, the most noticable update between versions 2.0 and 3.0 is the ability to return the authentication/user attributes in the
Web flow diagram
Proxy web flow diagram
One of the most powerful feature of the CAS protocol is the ability for a CAS service to act as a proxy for another CAS service, transmitting the user identity.
Using the CAS protocol, the CAS server can also be configured to delegate the authentication to another CAS server.