Authentication

The CAS authentication process is performed by several related components:

PrincipalNameTransformer

Transforms the user id string that is typed into the login form into a tentative Principal Name to be validated by a specific type of Authentication Handler.

AuthenticationManager

Entry point into authentication subsystem. It accepts one or more credentials and delegates authentication to configured AuthenticationHandler components. It collects the results of each attempt and determines effective security policy.

AuthenticationHandler

Authenticates a single credential and reports one of three possible results: success, failure, not attempted.

PrincipalResolver

Converts information in the authentication credential into a security principal that commonly contains additional metadata attributes (i.e. user details such as affiliations, group membership, email, display name).

AuthenticationMetaDataPopulator

Strategy component for setting arbitrary metadata about a successful authentication event; these are commonly used to set protocol-specific data.

Unless otherwise noted, the configuration for all authentication components is handled in deployerConfigContext.xml.

Authentication Manager

CAS ships with a single yet flexible authentication manager, PolicyBasedAuthenticationManager, that should be sufficient for most needs. It performs authentication according to the following contract.

For each given credential do the following:

  1. Iterate over all configured authentication handlers.
  2. Attempt to authenticate a credential if a handler supports it.
  3. On success attempt to resolve a principal.
  4. Check whether a resolver is configured for the handler that authenticated the credential.
  5. If a suitable resolver is found, attempt to resolve the principal.
  6. If a suitable resolver is not found, use the principal resolved by the authentication handler.
  7. Check whether the security policy (e.g. any, all) is satisfied.
  8. If security policy is met return immediately.
  9. Continue if security policy is not met.
  10. After all credentials have been attempted check security policy again and throw AuthenticationException if not satisfied.

There is an implicit security policy that requires at least one handler to successfully authenticate a credential, but the behavior can be further controlled by setting #setAuthenticationPolicy(AuthenticationPolicy) with one of the following policies.

AnyAuthenticationPolicy

Satisfied if any handler succeeds. Supports a tryAll flag to avoid short circuiting at step 4.1 above and try every handler even if one prior succeeded. This policy is the default and provides backward-compatible behavior with the AuthenticationManagerImpl component of CAS 3.x.

AllAuthenticationPolicy

Satisfied if and only if all given credentials are successfully authenticated. Support for multiple credentials is new in CAS and this handler would only be acceptable in a multi-factor authentication situation.

RequiredHandlerAuthenticationPolicy

Satisfied if an only if a specified handler successfully authenticates its credential. Supports a tryAll flag to avoid short circuiting at step 4.1 above and try every handler even if one prior succeeded. This policy could be used to support a multi-factor authentication situation, for example, where username/password authentication is required but an additional OTP is optional.

The following configuration snippet demonstrates how to configure PolicyBasedAuthenticationManager for a straightforward multi-factor authentication case where username/password authentication is required and an additional OTP credential is optional; in both cases principals are resolved from LDAP.

<bean id="passwordHandler"
      class="org.jasig.cas.authentication.LdapAuthenticationHandler">
      <!-- Details elided for simplicity -->
</bean>

<bean id="oneTimePasswordHandler"
      class="com.example.cas.authentication.CustomOTPAuthenticationHandler"
      p:name="oneTimePasswordHandler" />

<bean id="authenticationPolicy"
      class="org.jasig.cas.authentication.RequiredHandlerAuthenticationPolicyFactory"
      c:requiredHandlerName="passwordHandler"
      p:tryAll="true" />
      

<bean id="principalResolver"
      class="org.jasig.cas.authentication.principal.PersonDirectoryPrincipalResolver"
      p:principalAttributeName="username"
      p:attributeRepository-ref="attributeRepository"
      p:returnNullIfNoAttributes="true" />
      
<bean id="authenticationManager"
      class="org.jasig.cas.authentication.PolicyBasedAuthenticationManager"
      p:authenticationPolicy-ref="authenticationPolicy">
  <constructor-arg>
    <map>
      <entry key-ref="passwordHandler" value-ref="principalResolver"/>
      <entry key-ref="oneTimePasswordHandler" value-ref="principalResolver" />
    </map>
  </constructor-arg>
  <property name="authenticationMetaDataPopulators">
    <list>
      <bean class="org.jasig.cas.authentication.SuccessfulHandlerMetaDataPopulator" />
    </list>
  </property>
</bean>

Authentication Handlers

CAS ships with support for authenticating against many common kinds of authentication systems. The following list provides a complete list of supported authentication technologies; jump to the section(s) of interest.

There are some additional handlers for small deployments and special cases:

Argument Extractors

Extractors are responsible to examine the http request received for parameters that describe the authentication request such as the requesting service, etc. Extractors exist for a number of supported authentication protocols and each create appropriate instances of WebApplicationService that contains the results of the extraction.

Argument extractor configuration is defined at src/main/webapp/WEB-INF/spring-configuration/argumentExtractorsConfiguration.xml. Here’s a brief sample:

<bean id="casArgumentExtractor"	class="org.jasig.cas.web.support.CasArgumentExtractor" />

<util:list id="argumentExtractors">
    <ref bean="casArgumentExtractor" />
</util:list>

Components

ArgumentExtractor

Strategy parent interface that defines operations needed to extract arguments from the http request.

CasArgumentExtractor

Argument extractor that maps the request based on the specifications of the CAS protocol.

GoogleAccountsArgumentExtractor

Argument extractor to be used to enable Google Apps integration and SAML v2 specification.

SamlArgumentExtractor

Argument extractor compliant with SAML v1.1 specification.

OpenIdArgumentExtractor

Argument extractor compliant with OpenId protocol.

Principal Resolution

Please see this guide more full details on principal resolution.

PrincipalNameTransformer Components

Authentication handlers that generally deal with username-password credentials can be configured to transform the user id prior to executing the authentication sequence. The following components are available:

NoOpPrincipalNameTransformer

Default transformer, that actually does no transformation on the user id.

PrefixSuffixPrincipalNameTransformer

Transforms the user id by adding a postfix or suffix.

ConvertCasePrincipalNameTransformer

A transformer that converts the form uid to either lowercase or uppercase. The result is also trimmed. The transformer is also able to accept and work on the result of a previous transformer that might have modified the uid, such that the two can be chained.

Configuration

Here is an example configuration based for the AcceptUsersAuthenticationHandler:

<bean id="primaryAuthenticationHandler"
    class="org.jasig.cas.authentication.AcceptUsersAuthenticationHandler"
    p:principalNameTransformer-ref="convertCasePrincipalNameTransformer">
    <property name="users">
        <map>
            <entry key="casuser" value="Mellon"/>
        </map>
    </property>
</bean>

<bean id="convertCasePrincipalNameTransformer" 
    class="org.jasig.cas.authentication.handler.ConvertCasePrincipalNameTransformer"
    p:toUpperCase="true" />

Authentication Metadata

AuthenticationMetaDataPopulator components provide a pluggable strategy for injecting arbitrary metadata into the authentication subsystem for consumption by other subsystems or external components. Some notable uses of metadata populators:

  • Supports the long term authentication feature
  • SAML protocol support
  • OAuth and OpenID protocol support.

The default authentication metadata populators should be sufficient for most deployments. Where the components are required to support optional CAS features, they will be explicitly identified and configuration will be provided.

Long Term Authentication

CAS has support for long term Ticket Granting Tickets, a feature that is also referred to as “Remember Me” to extends the length of the SSO session beyond the typical configuration. Please see this guide for more details.

Proxy Authentication

Please see this guide for more details.

Multi-factor Authentication (MFA)

Please see this guide for more details.

Login Throttling

CAS provides a facility for limiting failed login attempts to support password guessing and related abuse scenarios. Please see this guide for additional details on login throttling.

A ticket-granting cookie is an HTTP cookie set by CAS upon the establishment of a single sign-on session. This cookie maintains login state for the client, and while it is valid, the client can present it to CAS in lieu of primary credentials. Please see this guide for additional details.