Database Authentication

Database authentication is enabled by including the following dependencies in the WAR overlay:

implementation "org.apereo.cas:cas-server-support-jdbc:${project.'cas.version'}"
dependencyManagement {
  imports {
    mavenBom "org.apereo.cas:cas-server-support-bom:${project.'cas.version'}"

dependencies {  
  implementation "org.apereo.cas:cas-server-support-jdbc"

To learn how to configure database drivers, please see this guide.


Query Database Authentication

Authenticates a user by comparing the user password (which can be encoded with a password encoder) against the password on record determined by a configurable database query.

The following settings and properties are available from the CAS configuration catalog:

The configuration settings listed below are tagged as Required in the CAS configuration metadata. This flag indicates that the presence of the setting may be needed to activate or affect the behavior of the CAS feature and generally should be reviewed, possibly owned and adjusted. If the setting is assigned a default value, you do not need to strictly put the setting in your copy of the configuration, but should review it nonetheless to make sure it matches your deployment expectations.

  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].password-encoder.encoding-algorithm=
  • The encoding algorithm to use such as MD5. Relevant when the type used is DEFAULT or GLIBC_CRYPT.


  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].password-encoder.type=NONE
  • Define the password encoder type to use. Type may be specified as blank or NONE to disable password encoding. It may also refer to a fully-qualified class name that implements the Spring Security's PasswordEncoder interface if you wish you define your own encoder. The following types may be used:

    • NONE: No password encoding (i.e. plain-text) takes place.
    • DEFAULT: Use the DefaultPasswordEncoder of CAS. For message-digest algorithms via character-encoding and encoding-algorithm.
    • BCRYPT: Use the BCryptPasswordEncoder based on the strength provided and an optional secret.
    • SCRYPT: Use the SCryptPasswordEncoder.
    • PBKDF2: Use the Pbkdf2PasswordEncoder based on the strength provided and an optional secret.
    • STANDARD: Use the StandardPasswordEncoder based on the secret provided.
    • SSHA: Use the LdapShaPasswordEncoder supports Ldap SHA and SSHA (salted-SHA). The values are base-64 encoded and have the label {SHA</code> or {SSHA</code> prepended to the encoded hash.
    • GLIBC_CRYPT: Use the GlibcCryptPasswordEncoder based on the encoding-algorithm, strength provided and an optional secret.
    • org.example.MyEncoder: An implementation of PasswordEncoder of your own choosing.
    • file:///path/to/script.groovy: Path to a Groovy script charged with handling password encoding operations.


  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].principal-transformation.groovy.location=
  • The location of the resource. Resources can be URLS, or files found either on the classpath or outside somewhere in the file system.

    In the event the configured resource is a Groovy script, specially if the script set to reload on changes, you may need to adjust the total number of inotify instances. On Linux, you may need to add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf: fs.inotify.max_user_instances = 256.

    You can check the current value via cat /proc/sys/fs/inotify/max_user_instances.


  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].driver-class=org.hsqldb.jdbcDriver
  • The JDBC driver used to connect to the database.

  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].field-password=
  • Password field/column name to retrieve.

  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].password=EMPTY
  • The database connection password.

  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].sql=
  • SQL query to execute. Example: SELECT * FROM table WHERE name=?.

  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].url=jdbc:hsqldb:mem:cas-hsql-database
  • The database connection URL.

    This setting supports the Spring Expression Language.

  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].user=sa
  • The database user.

    The database user must have sufficient permissions to be able to handle schema changes and updates, when needed.

    The configuration settings listed below are tagged as Optional in the CAS configuration metadata. This flag indicates that the presence of the setting is not immediately necessary in the end-user CAS configuration, because a default value is assigned or the activation of the feature is not conditionally controlled by the setting value.

  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].password-encoder.character-encoding=UTF-8
  • The encoding algorithm to use such as 'UTF-8'. Relevant when the type used is DEFAULT.


  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].password-encoder.secret=
  • Secret to use with STANDARD, PBKDF2, BCRYPT, GLIBC_CRYPT password encoders. Secret usually is an optional setting.


  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].password-encoder.strength=16
  • Strength or number of iterations to use for password hashing. Usually relevant when dealing with PBKDF2 or BCRYPT encoders. Used by GLIBC_CRYPT encoders as well.


  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].principal-transformation.blocking-pattern=
  • A regular expression that will be used against the username to match for blocking/forbidden values. If a match is found, an exception will be thrown and principal transformation will fail.


  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0]
  • Indicate whether the principal identifier should be transformed into upper-case, lower-case, etc. Available values are as follows:

    • NONE: No conversion.
    • LOWERCASE: Lowercase conversion.
    • UPPERCASE: Uppercase conversion.


  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].principal-transformation.pattern=
  • A regular expression that will be used against the provided username for username extractions. On a successful match, the first matched group in the pattern will be used as the extracted username.


  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].principal-transformation.prefix=
  • Prefix to add to the principal id prior to authentication.


  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].principal-transformation.suffix=
  • Suffix to add to the principal id prior to authentication.


  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].pool.max-size=18
  • Controls the maximum number of connections to keep in the pool, including both idle and in-use connections.

  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].pool.max-wait=PT2S
  • Sets the maximum time in seconds that this data source will wait while attempting to connect to a database.

    A value of zero specifies that the timeout is the default system timeout if there is one; otherwise, it specifies that there is no timeout.

    This settings supports the java.time.Duration syntax [?].

  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].pool.min-size=6
  • Controls the minimum size that the pool is allowed to reach, including both idle and in-use connections.

  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0]
  • Set the name of the connection pool. This is primarily used for the MBean to uniquely identify the pool configuration.

  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].pool.suspension=
  • Whether or not pool suspension is allowed.

    There is a performance impact when pool suspension is enabled. Unless you need it (for a redundancy system for example) do not enable it.

  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].pool.timeout-millis=1_000
  • The maximum number of milliseconds that the pool will wait for a connection to be validated as alive.

  • cas.authn.jdbc.query=
  • Settings related to query-mode jdbc authentication. Authenticates a user by comparing the user password (which can be encoded with a password encoder) against the password on record determined by a configurable database query.

  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].autocommit=
  • The default auto-commit behavior of connections in the pool. Determined whether queries such as update/insert should be immediately executed without waiting for an underlying transaction.

  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].batch-size=100
  • A non-zero value enables use of JDBC2 batch updates by Hibernate. e.g. recommended values between 5 and 30.

  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].credential-criteria=
  • A number of authentication handlers are allowed to determine whether they can operate on the provided credential and as such lend themselves to be tried and tested during the authentication handler selection phase. The credential criteria may be one of the following options:

    • 1) A regular expression pattern that is tested against the credential identifier.
    • 2) A fully qualified class name of your own design that implements Predicate.
    • 3) Path to an external Groovy script that implements the same interface.

  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].data-source-name=
  • Attempts to do a JNDI data source look up for the data source name specified. Will attempt to locate the data source object as is.

  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].ddl-auto=update
  • Hibernate feature to automatically validate and exports DDL to the schema. By default, creates and drops the schema automatically when a session is starts and ends. Setting the value to validate or none may be more desirable for production, but any of the following options can be used:

    • validate: Validate the schema, but make no changes to the database.
    • update: Update the schema.
    • create: Create the schema, destroying previous data.
    • create-drop: Drop the schema at the end of the session.
    • none: Do nothing.

    Note that during a version migration where any schema has changed create-drop will result in the loss of all data as soon as CAS is started. For transient data like tickets this is probably not an issue, but in cases like the audit table important data could be lost. Using `update`, while safe for data, is confirmed to result in invalid database state. validate or none settings are likely the only safe options for production use.

    For more info, see this.

  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].default-catalog=
  • Qualifies unqualified table names with the given catalog in generated SQL.

  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].default-schema=
  • Qualify unqualified table names with the given schema/tablespace in generated SQL.

  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].dialect=org.hibernate.dialect.HSQLDialect
  • The database dialect is a configuration setting for platform independent software (JPA, Hibernate, etc) which allows such software to translate its generic SQL statements into vendor specific DDL, DML.

  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].fail-fast-timeout=1
  • Set the pool initialization failure timeout.

    • Any value greater than zero will be treated as a timeout for pool initialization. The calling thread will be blocked from continuing until a successful connection to the database, or until the timeout is reached. If the timeout is reached, then a PoolInitializationException will be thrown.
    • A value of zero will not prevent the pool from starting in the case that a connection cannot be obtained. However, upon start the pool will attempt to obtain a connection and validate that the connectionTestQuery and connectionInitSql are valid. If those validations fail, an exception will be thrown. If a connection cannot be obtained, the validation is skipped and the the pool will start and continue to try to obtain connections in the background. This can mean that callers to DataSource#getConnection() may encounter exceptions.
    • A value less than zero will not bypass any connection attempt and validation during startup, and therefore the pool will start immediately. The pool will continue to try to obtain connections in the background. This can mean that callers to DataSource#getConnection() may encounter exceptions.
    Note that if this timeout value is greater than or equal to zero (0), and therefore an initial connection validation is performed, this timeout does not override the connectionTimeout or validationTimeout; they will be honored before this timeout is applied. The default value is one millisecond.

  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].fetch-size=100
  • Used to specify number of rows to be fetched in a select query.

  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].field-disabled=
  • Boolean field that should indicate whether the account is disabled.

  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].field-expired=
  • Boolean field that should indicate whether the account is expired.

  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].generate-statistics=
  • Allow hibernate to generate query statistics.

  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].health-query=EMPTY
  • The SQL query to be executed to test the validity of connections. This is for "legacy" databases that do not support the JDBC4 Connection.isValid() API.

  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].idle-timeout=PT10M
  • Controls the maximum amount of time that a connection is allowed to sit idle in the pool.

    This settings supports the java.time.Duration syntax [?].

  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].isolate-internal-queries=
  • This property determines whether data source isolates internal pool queries, such as the connection alive test, in their own transaction.

    Since these are typically read-only queries, it is rarely necessary to encapsulate them in their own transaction. This property only applies if #autocommit is disabled.

  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].isolation-level-name=ISOLATION_READ_COMMITTED
  • Defines the isolation level for transactions.

  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].leak-threshold=3_000
  • Controls the amount of time that a connection can be out of the pool before a message is logged indicating a possible connection leak.

  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].name=
  • Name of the authentication handler.

  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].order=MAX_VALUE
  • Order of the authentication handler in the chain.

  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].physical-naming-strategy-class-name=org.apereo.cas.hibernate.CasHibernatePhysicalNamingStrategy
  • Fully-qualified name of the class that can control the physical naming strategy of hibernate.

  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].principal-attribute-list=
  • List of column names to fetch as user attributes.

  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].propagation-behavior-name=PROPAGATION_REQUIRED
  • Defines the propagation behavior for transactions.

  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].properties=
  • Additional settings provided by Hibernate in form of key-value pairs.

  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].read-only=
  • Configures the Connections to be added to the pool as read-only Connections.

  • cas.authn.jdbc.query[0].state=ACTIVE
  • Define the scope and state of this authentication handler and the lifecycle in which it can be invoked or activated.